Metoprolol is a cardioselective β1-adrenergic blocking agent used for acute myocardial infarction (MI), heart failure, angina pectoris and mild to moderate hypertension. It may also be used for supraventricular and tachyarrhythmias and prophylaxis for migraine headaches. Metoprolol is structurally similar to bisoprolol, acebutolol and atenolol in that it has two substituents in the para position of the benzene ring. The β1-selectivity of these agents is thought to be due in part to the large substituents in the para position. At low doses, metoprolol selectively blocks cardiac β1-adrenergic receptors with little activity against β2-adrenergic receptors of the lungs and vascular smooth muscle. Unlike propranolol and pindolol, metoprolol does not exhibit membrane-stabilizing or intrinsic sympathomimetic activity. Membrane-stabilizing effects are only observed at doses much higher than those needed for β-adrenergic blocking activity. Metoprolol possesses a single chiral centre and is administered as a racemic mixture. Nadolol (Corgard) is a non-selective beta blocker used in the treatment of high blood pressure and chest pain. Additionally, it is often prescribed in the treatment of atrial fibrillation, migraine headaches, and complications of cirrhosis. Nadolol is one of the preferred beta-blockers in the management of patients with LQTS for shortening of the QT interval and prevention of ventricular arrhythmia. It is more efficacious than cardioselective beta-blockers like metoprolol and propanolol in the prevention of breakthrough cardiac events Nadolol is a non-selective beta blocker; that is, it non-selectively blocks both beta-1 and beta-2 receptors. It has a preference for beta-1 receptors, which are predominantly located in the heart, thereby inhibiting the effects of catecholamines and causing a decrease in heart rate and blood pressure. Its inhibition of beta-2 receptors, which are mainly located in the bronchial smooth muscle of the airways, leads to airway constriction similar to that seen in asthma. Inhibition of beta-1 receptors in the juxtaglomerular apparatus of the kidney inhibits the renin–angiotensin system, causing a decrease in vasoconstriction and a decrease in water retention. Clomid and alcohol Cialis 20mg for sale Aug 24, 2015. "Effect of metoprolol CR/XL in chronic heart failure Metoprolol CR/XL Randomised Intervention Trial in Congestive Heart Failure". The Lancet. Jul 21, 2016. Metoprolol is a prescription medication used to treat high blood pressure, angina chest pain, congestive heart failure, and to improve survival. Metoprolol, marketed under the tradename Lopressor among others, is a medication of the selective β1 receptor blocker type. It is used to treat high blood. Metoprolol is used for a number of conditions, including hypertension, angina, acute myocardial infarction, supraventricular tachycardia, ventricular tachycardia, congestive heart failure, and prevention of migraine headaches. receptors in the heart, metoprolol is also prescribed for off-label use in performance anxiety, social anxiety disorder, and other anxiety disorders. Metoprolol is sold in formulations that can be taken by mouth or given intravenously. Side effects, especially with higher doses, include dizziness, drowsiness, fatigue, diarrhea, unusual dreams, trouble sleeping, depression, and vision problems. Metoprolol may also reduce blood flow to the hands or feet, causing them to feel numb and cold; smoking may worsen this effect. Due to the high penetration across the blood-brain barrier, lipophilic beta blockers such as propranolol and metoprolol are more likely than other less lipophilic beta blockers to cause sleep disturbances such as insomnia and vivid dreams and nightmares. Serious side effects that are advised to be reported immediately include symptoms of bradycardia (resting heart rate slower than 60 beats per minute), persistent symptoms of dizziness, fainting and unusual fatigue, bluish discoloration of the fingers and toes, numbness/tingling/swelling of the hands or feet, sexual dysfunction, erectile dysfunction, hair loss, mental/mood changes, depression, breathing difficulty, cough, dyslipidemia and increased thirst. Beta blockers, also written β-blockers, are a class of medications that are predominantly used to manage abnormal heart rhythms, and to protect the heart from a second heart attack (myocardial infarction) after a first heart attack (secondary prevention). Beta blockers are competitive antagonists that block the receptor sites for the endogenous catecholamines epinephrine (adrenaline) and norepinephrine (noradrenaline) on adrenergic beta receptors, of the sympathetic nervous system, which mediates the fight-or-flight response. Beta receptors are found on cells of the heart muscles, smooth muscles, airways, arteries, kidneys, and other tissues that are part of the sympathetic nervous system and lead to stress responses, especially when they are stimulated by epinephrine (adrenaline). Beta blockers interfere with the binding to the receptor of epinephrine and other stress hormones, and weaken the effects of stress hormones. In 1964, James Black For the treatment of primary hypertension, meta-analyses of studies which mostly used atenolol have shown that although beta blockers are more effective than placebo in preventing stroke and total cardiovascular events, they are not as effective as diuretics, medications inhibiting the renin–angiotensin system (e.g., ACE inhibitors), or calcium channel blockers. Although beta blockers were once contraindicated in congestive heart failure, as they have the potential to worsen the condition due to their effect of decreasing cardiac contractility, studies in the late 1990s showed their efficacy at reducing morbidity and mortality. Bisoprolol, carvedilol, and sustained-release metoprolol are specifically indicated as adjuncts to standard ACE inhibitor and diuretic therapy in congestive heart failure, although at doses typically much lower than those indicated for other conditions. Metoprolol wiki Metoprolol - DrugBank, Metoprolol - Side Effects, Uses, Dosage, Overdose, Pregnancy. Where can i buy prednisone over the counter Metoprolol is a cardioselective beta-blocker that is widely used in the treatment of hypertension and angina pectoris. Metoprolol has been linked to rare cases of drug induced liver injury. Metoprolol C15H25NO3 - PubChem. Metoprolol - Wikipedia. Metoprolol - encyclopedia article - Citizendium. Nadolol Corgard is a non-selective beta blocker used in the treatment of high blood pressure. It is more efficacious than cardioselective beta-blockers like metoprolol and propanolol in the prevention of breakthrough cardiac events. Nadolol. Метопролол является эффективным лекарственным средством, которое относится к группе селективных бета-адреноблокаторов без внутреннего симптоматического действия. Oct 31, 2017. General. Type Beta blockers; Dosage Forms Tablet 25 mg, 37.5 mg, 50 mg, 75mg, 100 mg. IV variable; Common Trade Names Lopressor.